Top 10 Chronic Conditions in Adults 65+ and What You Can do to Prevent or Manage Them
By Healthy Aging Team
Top 10 Chronic Conditions in Adults 65+ and What You Can do to Prevent or Manage Them
Age, family genetics, and gender make it nearly impossible for older adults to avoid becoming a chronic disease statistic. Eighty percent of adults 65 and older have at least one condition, while 68% have two or more. You probably have a parent or grandparent who is managing a condition right now, or perhaps you are managing one yourself.
With these kinds of odds, you might wonder if there is even anything you can do to prevent the onset of a condition, or make managing an existing condition easier. The answer is yes. Here are ten common chronic conditions adults 65+ on Medicare were treated for in 2015, and what you should know about each.
The 10 most common chronic diseases in adults 65+
Number 10: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
11 % of older adults were treated for COPD, a disease that includes two main conditions—emphysema and chronic bronchitis. COPD makes it hard to breathe and causes shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness.
The number one way to prevent COPD—or slow it’s progression—is to quit or avoid smoking. Also try to avoid secondhand smoke, chemical fumes, and dust, which can irritate your lungs.
If you already have COPD, complete the treatments that your doctor has prescribed, get the flu and pneumonia vaccines as recommended by your doctor, and continue to remain active.
Number 9: Alzheimer’s disease and dementia
11% of older adults on Medicare were treated for Alzheimer’s Disease or another form of dementia. Alzheimer’s Disease is one specific type of dementia—a condition that causes memory loss and difficulty thinking or problem-solving to the point that it interferes with every day activities. Dementia is not a normal part of aging and is caused by changes in the brain over time.
The biggest risk factors for these conditions are things you often can’t control, including age, family history, and genetics, but studies have suggested incorporating the following habits into your life style could slow or prevent onset.
Exercise. Staying active isn’t just good for your heart; it’s also great for your brain.
Sleep. Your brain does important stuff while you are sleeping, so getting at least 7 hours of deep sleep a night is crucial
Be smart about your diet. Research suggests that some foods can negatively affect your brain
Number 8: Depression
14% of older adults sought treatment for depression – a treatable medical condition that is not a normal part of aging. Depression causes persistent feelings of sadness, pessimism, hopelessness, fatigue, difficulty making decisions, changes in appetite, a loss of interest in activities, and more.
Steps you can take to help with depression include:
Manage stress levels. Reach out to family and friends during rough spells and consider regular meditation
Eat a healthy diet. What you put into your body can affect your mood, so focus on foods that are high in nutrients and promote the release of endorphins and those “feel good” chemicals, and limit consumption of things like alcohol, caffeine, artificial sweeteners, and highly processed foods.
Routine exercise. Exercise has a number of physical and psychological benefits, including improving your mood through the release of endorphins and other “feel good” brain chemicals, boosting self-confidence and self-worth through meeting goals and improving your physical appearance, and increased socialization through interactions at gyms and group classes.
Talk to your doctor. If you’ve experienced any of the warning signs of depression, talk to your doctor, and ask about your treatment options. Antidepressant medications or psychotherapy could be right for you.
If you or someone you love has had thoughts of suicide, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1.800.273.8255 (TALK).
Number 7: Heart failure
14% of older adults were treated for heart failure — a condition that occurs when the heart cannot adequately supply blood and oxygen to all of the organs in the body. The heart might become enlarged, develop more muscle mass, or pump faster in order to meet the body’s needs, causing you to feel tired, light headed, nauseous, confused, or lack an appetite. The best prevention is to follow a doctor’s recommendations to decrease your risk for coronary heart disease and high blood pressure.
Number 6: Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
18% of older adults were treated for CKD or a slow loss in kidney function over time. People dealing with CKD have an increased risk for developing heart disease or kidney failure. You can do the following to prevent or diminish symptoms of CKD:
Understand what damages your kidney. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the greatest risk factors for kidney damage, so taking steps to prevent these diseases is your best strategy
Early detection and treatment. Talk to your doctor regularly, stay current on screenings, and keep up on prescriptions you need to diminish symptoms
Number 5: Diabetes
27% of older adults were treated for diabetes – a disease that occurs when your body is resistant to, or doesn’t produce enough, insulin. Insulin is what your body uses to get energy from food, and distribute it to your cells. When this doesn’t happen, you get high blood sugar, which can lead to complications such as kidney disease, heart disease, or blindness. Chances of having diabetes increases after age 45.
To keep you from developing diabetes or to manage this condition, your doctor may suggest:
Eating a healthy diet, including monitoring your carbohydrate and calorie intake, and talking to your doctor about alcohol consumption
Exercising for 30 minutes five times a week to keep your blood glucose levels in check, and to control weight gain
Safely losing 5-7% of body weight if you are diagnosed with pre-diabetes
Number 4: Ischemic heart disease (or coronary heart disease)
29% of older adults were treated for ischemic heart disease – a condition that is caused by a build-up of plaque that narrows the arteries leading to the heart. Narrow or blocked arteries decreases the amount of oxygen-rich blood delivered to the heart. This can cause other complications like blood clots, angina, or a heart attack.
Habits you can incorporate to help:
Refrain from saturated and trans fats, and limit sugar and salt intake
Get 7-8 hours of sleep each night
Keep your stress levels in check
Do regular cardio exercises
Abstain from smoking
Talk to your doctor about the major risk factors, including high cholesterol and high blood pressure
Number 3: Arthritis
31% of older adults were treated for arthritis – an inflammation of your joints, which causes pain and stiffness and is more common in women.
There are steps you can take to delay the onset of arthritis or manage the symptoms, including:
Exercise at least 5 times per week, for 30 minutes each time to improve function and decrease pain. Try to include a mixture of aerobic, strength-building and stretching movements.
Stay within the recommended weight for your height—losing one pound can remove four pounds of pressure on your knees
Make sure your back, legs and arms are always supported
Take precautions to avoid joint injuries
Do not smoke
Number 2: High cholesterol
47% of older adults were treated for high cholesterol – a condition that occurs when your body has an excess of bad fats (or lipids), resulting in your arteries getting clogged, which can lead to heart disease.
Lifestyle factors you can control when it comes to preventing or managing high cholesterol include:
Abstaining from smoking and excessive alcohol consumption
Being active each day
Managing your weight
Minimizing saturated fats and trans fats in your diet
Number 1: Hypertension (high blood pressure)
58% of older adults were treated for hypertension – a common condition that involves both how much blood your heart pumps, as well as how resistant your arteries are to the blood flow. When your heart pumps a lot of blood, and you have narrow arteries which resist the flow, that’s when you get high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. The danger of hypertension is not only that you can have it for years and not know it, but it can cause other serious health conditions, like stroke and heart attacks.
Things you can do to try to prevent, or reduce, high blood pressure include:
Maintaining a healthy weight. Losing just ten pounds can reduce blood pressure
Regulate your stress levels
Limit salt and alcohol consumption
Exercise daily, including a combination of moderate to vigorous-intensity aerobic activities, flexibility and stretching, and muscle strengthening
Check your blood pressure regularly—the quicker you catch pre-hypertension, the more likely you are to prevent high blood pressure
When these tactics aren’t enough
The above tips can help you avoid or successfully manage a chronic condition. However, if you or someone you know is struggling to manage a chronic condition, there are programs in your community that can help, like the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP). CDSMP is a 6-week, interactive, small-group workshop that helps participants build the skills necessary to control how chronic conditions affect their life.
Workshop sessions focus on the following topics:
Dealing with fatigue, pain, frustration, or isolation
Maintaining strength, flexibility, and endurance
Communicating with family, friends, and health professionals
To learn more about workshops in your community, contact your local area agency on aging.
For original post at National Council of Aging:
Pain Management for Seniors
Up to 88% of older adults report some form of chronic pain. Seniors are more vulnerable to chronic pain for a number of reasons, including greater joint and muscle wear, the presence of other medical conditions and a general decrease in activity levels. Chronic pain also leads to a greater risk of accidents such as falls. Older adults who have chronic joint pain or muscle aches, especially in the legs, are 50% more prone to falling than seniors without it. The most common types of chronic pain in seniors are: Arthritis / joint pain, peripheral neuropathy (often associated with diabetes), lingering pain from injuries (such as a rotator cuff tear or hip fracture), Cancer pain and depression-associated pain.
Nevertheless, chronic pain should not be an accepted part of life for older adults. Seniors working with their healthcare providers can learn to manage their conditions and live a full life in spite of pain, no matter what their age. However, dealing with chronic pain in seniors can be a challenge for caregivers because it is often harder to diagnose and treat. Older adults are less likely to be forthcoming about their pain when speaking with their doctors. This could be out of fear of potential illness or because they do not want to appear weak. Seniors often feel that pain comes with age, and that reporting it is unnecessary. Some may also have trouble communicating their pain because of compromised abilities associated with a stroke or even dementia. The result can leave many seniors trying to cope with chronic pain unguided, leaving them open to anxiety and depression.
Because of the reticence of many seniors to acknowledge their pain, the most important first step to pain management is for caregivers to carefully monitor and communicate with the senior about the pain he or she might be experiencing. Good communication is the critical first step to effective treatment. A thorough evaluation by the senior’s doctor to determine the causes of pain should follow, along with recommendations for treatment. Here are some treatment options the National Institute of Aging recommends.
Pain medications are the most common form of pain management, however they also pose risks for a variety of complications. Older adults tend to have more adverse reactions to pain medications, so all medications need to be monitored closely in seniors, and medication changes may require more time.
Some seniors simply won’t take pain medications because they do not want to suffer the side effects. Additionally, since seniors may have medical conditions that require regular medications, such as heart disease, lung disorders, diabetes and blood pressure problems, caregivers must be vigilant about possible drug interactions. The following are the major pain medication categories:
- Analgesics such as Acetaminophen are effective for mild to moderate pain. It is not habit-forming but can be dangerous to your liver if taken in high doses.
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) include aspirin and ibuprofen. These over-the-counter pain relievers can be unsafe for people who have high blood pressure.
- Opioid pain relievers (narcotics) are powerful prescription drugs used to treat moderate to severe pain. They are often prescribed for pain after surgery. They can cause side effects like nausea, constipation, and sleepiness. Several examples are codeine, morphine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone. While these can be very effective, they can also lead to addiction.
Other Pain Therapies